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the way的用法及其含义

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发表于 2019-3-7 11:11:28 | 只看该作者 回帖奖励 |倒序浏览 |
作者:刘永科(山东)

来源:山东师范大学外语学院《山东外语教学》(1984年第4期第82—84页)(本文有增删)

新课标人教版必修二第1单元Reading中,有这样一个句子:In 1770 the room was completed the way she wanted. 1770年,这间琥珀屋按照她的要求完成了。

the way在句中的语法作用是什么?其意义如何?在阅读时,学生经常会碰到一些含有the way的句子,如:No one knows the way he invented the machine. He did not do the experiment the way his teacher told him.等等。他们对the way 的用法和含义比较模糊。

在这几个句子中,the way之后的部分都是定语从句。第一句的意思是,“没人知道他是怎样发明这台机器的。”the way的意思相当于how;第二句的意思是,“他没有按照老师说的那样做实验。”the way 的意思相当于as。在In 1770 the room was completed the way she wanted.这句话中,the way也是as的含义。随着现代英语的发展,the way的用法已越来越普遍了。下面,我们从the way的语法作用和意义等方面做一考查和分析:

(一)the way作先行词,后接定语从句

以下3种表达都是正确的。例如:“我喜欢她笑的样子。”

1. the way+ in which +从句

I like the way in which she smiles.

2. the way+ that +从句

I like the way that she smiles.

3. the way + 从句(省略了in which或that)

I like the way she smiles.

又如:“火灾如何发生的,有好几种说法。”

1. There were several theories about the way in which the fire started.

2. There were several theories about the way that the fire started.

3. There were several theories about the way the fire started.

上述句子都正确,意思也完全相同。但是,the way之后用in which引导的定语从句最为正式;省略了that或in which是最自然、最常用的表达;然而,the way之后用that引导定语从句,最不常见。

注意,在先行词the way之后不用how。因为引导定语从句的关系词是that而不是how,因此,《现代英语惯用法词典》中所给出的下面两个句子是错误的:

This is the way how it happened.

This is the way how he always treats me.

(二)the way在句中的语法作用

the way在句中可以作主语、宾语或表语:

1.作主语

The way you are doing it is completely crazy.你这个干法简直发疯。

The way she puts on that accent really irritates me. 她故意操那种口音的样子实在令我恼火。

The way she behaved towards him was utterly ruthless. 她对待他真是无情至极。

Words are important, but the way a person stands, folds his or her arms or moves his or her hands can also give us information about his or her feelings. 言语固然重要,但人的站姿,抱臂的方式和手势也回告诉我们他(她)的情感。

2.作宾语

I hate the way she stared at me.我讨厌她盯我看的样子。

We like the way that her hair hangs down.我们喜欢她的头发笔直地垂下来。

You could tell she was foreign by the way she was dressed. 从她的穿著就可以看出她是外国人。

She could not hide her amusement at the way he was dancing. 她见他跳舞的姿势,忍俊不禁。

3.作表语

This is the way the accident happened.这就是事故如何发生的。

Believe it or not, that's the way it is. 信不信由你, 反正事情就是这样。

That's the way I look at it, too. 我也是这么想。

That was the way minority nationalities were treated in old China. 那就是少数民族在旧中国如何被对待的情况。

(三)the way的语义

1. the way=as(像)

Please do it the way I’ve told you.请按照我告诉你的那样做。

I'm talking to you just the way I'd talk to a boy of my own.我和你说话就像和自己孩子说话一样。

Plant need water the way they need sun light. 植物需要水就像它们需要阳光一样。

2. the way=how(怎样,多么)

No one can imagine the way he misses her.没人能够想象出他是多么想念她!

I want to find out the way a volcano has formed.我想弄清楚火山是怎样形成的。

He was filled with anger at the way he had been treated.他因遭受如此待遇而怒火满腔。

That’s the way she speaks.她就是那样讲话的。

3. the way=according as (根据)

The way you answer the questions, you must be an excellent student.从你回答问题来看,你一定是名优秀的学生。

The way most people look at you, you'd think a trashman was a monster.从大多数人看你的目光中,你就知道垃圾工在他们眼里是怪物。

The way I look at it, it’s not what you do that matters so much.依我看,重要的并不是你做什么。

I might have been his son the way he talked.根据他说话的样子,好像我是他的儿子一样。

One would think these men owned the earth the way they behave.他们这样行动,人家竟会以为他们是地球的主人。

The boy must be a stranger here, the way he looks into the shop windows.根据男孩向商店橱窗张望德样子,看来他一定是这里的陌生人。

4.the way=because(因为)

No wonder that girl looks down upon me, the way you encourage her.难怪那个女孩看不起我, 原来是你怂恿的。

How silly she is, the way she asks questions about this and that!她不断地问这问那,显得好不愚蠢!

5. the way=that(引导名词性从句)

It was boring the way he kept complaining to his wife.他一直向他妻子抱怨令人心烦。

It was shameful the way she was treated. 她竟然受到那样的对待,太不象话了。

It's a crime the way he bullies his children. 像他那样欺负自己的孩子真缺德。

下面,再举一些常见的含有the way的句子:

From the way they talked I presumed they were married. 从他俩谈话的样子看,我相信他们已经结婚了。

The way he works isn't very systematical. 他的工作方法不是很有条理。

If you don't like the way we're doing the job, sound off! 要是你不喜欢我们的工作方式就说出来。

She's not very consistent in the way she treats her children. 她对待孩子反复无常。

She was becoming increasingly despondent about the way things were going. 她对情况的发展越来越失望。

There was something peculiar in the way he smiled. 他笑起来有点怪。

The way in which we work has undergone a complete transformation in the past decade. 在过去的十年里,我们的工作方式经历了彻底的变革。

I love the way you are. 我就喜欢你这样的人。

He's a wonder with the way he arranges everything without any help. 他不要任何帮忙就把事情样样办妥,真是个奇才。

The government is trying to improve the way it collects taxes. 政府正试图改进收税的方式。

I was utterly ravished by the way she smiled. 她的微笑使我完全陶醉了。

Everyone admired the way she faced out the opposition in the debate. 大家都钦佩她在辩论中勇敢地应对对手的方法。

The way in which you'll go about the task really matters. 你做这件事要采用的方法的确很重要。

I hate the way he made up to these people. 我讨厌他向这些人献殷勤的样子。

I don't like the way she speaks. 我不喜欢她说话的样子。

He is resentful at the way he has been treated. 他对所受的待遇感到忿恨。

My father is always finding fault with the way I do things. 我父亲总是对我做事的方式百般挑剔。

We were pleased with the way things fell out. 我们对事情的进展感到高兴。

We are unhappy about the way the doctor treated us. 我们对医生这样对待我们感到不满。

She is conservative in the way she dresses. 她在衣着上很保守。

I like the way the blue carpet and the gold curtains go together. 我喜欢蓝色地毯和金黄色窗帘那样的相配。

I don't like the way he looks at me. 我不喜欢他那种样子看着我。

I do hate the way Jack boasts about his new car. 我十分讨厌杰克吹嘘他那辆新车。


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